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Full text of "Resource Management Report July 1, 1964"

No. 76 g A^ July, 1964. 

• v A a 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F. A. MacDougall 

Minister- Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Intro-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



No. 76 July, 1964. 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Fish and Wildlife Branch 

Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Infra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemanjul1964onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 76 July, 1964 

Page 

Experimental Aerial Moose Hunting in the 
Pikangikum Area of Northwestern Ontario, 1963. 

- by A. E. Armstrong 1 



Moose Browse Survey and Pellet Group Count 

Kenora District, 1963. - by R. B. Hall 9 



Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot - 1963. 

- by L. J. Stock 19 



Some Observations on a Sub-marginal 
Agricultural Area and Factors Affecting Forest 
Management in the Area. - by J, W. Keenan 25 



The Wolf Problem in the Kearney Area 1963-64. 

- by Carman W. Douglas 29 



Report on the Commercial Bait-Fish Industry 
for Lake Simcoe District in 1S63. 

- by A. S. Holder 35 



Review of the Boimechere River - Golden Lake 

Walleye Tagging Program - 1963, Pembroke 

District. - by J. F. Gardner 38 



Some Current Fisheries Problems in Patricia 
Lakes and Recommendations for Future Work of 
the Inventory Programme, 1964, 

- by C. A. Lewis 46 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



..• f\„; 



EXPERIMENTAL AERIAL MOOSE HUNTING IN THE 
PIKANGIKUM AREA OF NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO 

1963 

by 
A. E. Armstrong 
District Biologist 
Sioux Lookout District 

Abstract 

The experimental aerial noose hunting area that was 
established in Kenora District in 1961 and expanded 
in 1962 to take in part of Sioux Lookout and Fort 
Frances Districts was changed to the Pikangikum area 
in 1963. A total of 236 hunters took out permits to 
hunt. From the 236 returns received, 22 did not make 
use of the permit and 26 were unsuccessful. Hunter 
success was an extremely high 87.0 per cent. Fifty- 
eight per cent of the 188 moose killed were males. 
The average flying time for each kill was 8.0 hours 
and the average number of moose seen by each hunter 
was 19.3* 



Introduction 

Prior to the 1960 moose hunting season there was 
considerable talk of establishing a moose management area in a 
portion of the Sioux Lockout and Kenora Districts. 

The reasons for wishing to establish this moose management 
area were twofold, to reduce some of the heavy hunting pressure in 
the Red Lake Road area and to increase the kill in a heavy moose 
density area where killing was presently almost nil. 

It was decided that the area circumscribed by the 
Manitoba Border the 7th base line, the 94th meridian and the 11th 
base line would be a suitable area in which to have this hunt. 

An attempt to change legislation governing the use of 
aircraft for hunting failed and it was decided to abandon the 
project for 



In 1961 strong opposition was shown by the Tourist 
Outfitters in Ear Falls area and plans to proceed with the 
experiment in the originally designated areas were abandoned. 



■% 



.; 1*. 



i :~j. . . 



2 

However, an area east of Sioux Narrows, Lying entirely 
within the Kenora District was selected and approval to proceed 
with the experiment was received in September 1961 from Hon. J.W. 
Spooner, then Minister of the Department of Lands &. Forests, 

In 1962 this area was extended to include part of 
Sioux Lookout District and a second area in Fort Frances was set 
up for resident hunters only. 

In 1963 both of these areas were discontinued and an 
area similar to the one originally planned for Sioux Lookout 
District was set up. The selected area was 18,760 square miles of 
remote country bounded on the north by latitude 53 degrees .00 
minutes, on the south by the 7th base line, on the west by the 
boundary between Manitoba and Ontario. The eastern boundary com- 
mences at the 7th base line and extends north on loogitude 94 
degrees .00 minutes to the organized townships at Red Lake. From 
slightly north of Red Lake the boundary again moved east to 
latitude 92 degrees .00 minutes west, thence north to the inter- 
section with the northern boundary. Because of the lengthy descrip- 
tion of the eastern boundary it has not been given here in full 
detail. A map of the entire spotting area showing location of kills 
is given in (Appendix 1). 

This year upon depositing his resident or non-resident 
moose licence at one of the designated departmental offices, the 
hunter was issued a licence in Form 1 to search for moose by the 
use of aircraft,, (Appendix II). 

The holder shall before the fifth day after the expiry 
of the licence, surrender the licence to its issuer, shall produce 
any moose taken by him for inspection by the issuer and shall complete 
and file with the issuer a report in form 2. (Appendix II). 

In 1962 several complaints were received concerning the 
use of helicopters in spotting moose, therefore in 1963 use of 
helicopters was prohibited. 

Some complaints were also received in 1963 concerning 
people shooting at moose from the aircraft while still flying. 
None of these complaints could be acted upon because the parties in 
question had left the area by the time the complaints were received 
by our Department. 

This year all of the 236 hunters who obtained permits 
submitted returns to our Department. There was a marked decrease 
in the number of hunters taking part in the hunt compared with 
1962. Hunter success increased from 79.4 per cent to 87.0 per cent. 
There were 26 hunters not successful and 22 hunters who though taking 
out a permit did not use the privilege. 



Results 1962 1963 

Pernits issued 

Hunters failing to report 

Hunters reporting 

Pernits not used 

Hunters reporting who participated in 

hunt 
No. of noose killed 
Hunter success 
Total noose reported seen 
Av. nunber noose seen per hunter 
Total flying tine 
Av. flying tine per hunter 
Av. flying tine per kill 

The nunber of persons using the area dropped sharply 
in 1963. This nay have been due to the distance of the United States 
border fron the area, and also because of the lack of connercial 
aircraft in the innediate vicinity in conparison to the previous 
spotting area. The average nunber of noose seen per hunter rose 
slightly fron 17.0 to 19.3. The average flying tine per hunter and 
per kill increased slightly over the previous year. 

Conposition of Kill 



421 




236 


12 




-» 


409 




236 


11 




22 


398 




214 


316 




188 


79, 


4% 


87.0% 


6773 




4183 


17, 





19.3 


2284 


hrs. 


1422 hrs. 


5, 


7 hrs. 


7.1 hrs. 


7, 


2 hrs. 


8.0 hrs. 





1961 x 


1962 x 


1963 




Bulls 


57 


167 


99 


52.7% 


Cows 


40 


104 


76 


40.4% 


cf Calves 


10 


31 


10 


5.3% 


9 Calves 


3 


13 


3 


1.6% 



Total 110 315 188 100. 

x Fron Thonpson 1961 and Charlton 1962. 



4 

Temporal Distribution of Moose Kill 



Date 




Moose 


% of Total 


Sport snen 


% of Total 


Hunter Days 


Week of 




Killed 


Kill 
1.6 


Hunting Each 
Week 


Hunting 
Effort 

0.9 


per 


Moose 


Sept. 16-21 


3 


4 




1.3 


22-28 




2 


1.1 


4 


0.9 




2.0 


29-Oct, 


.5 


38 


20.0 


89 


20.0 




2.3 


Oct. 6-12 




27 


14.4 


36 


8.1 




1.3 


13-19 




19 


10.1 


26 


5.8 




1.4 


20-26 




7 


3.7 


13 


2.9 




1,8 


27-Nov, 


,2 


2 


1.1 


6 


1.3 




3.0 


Nov. 3-9 




2 


1.1 


3 


0.7 




1,5 


10-16 




1 


0.5 


1 


0.2 




1.0 


17-23 




3 


1.6 


5 


1.1 




1.7 


24-30 




w 


- 


- 


- 




- 


Dec. 1-7 




1 


0.5 


5 


1.1 




5.0 


8-14 




6 


3.2 


14 


3.1 




2.3 


15-21 




40 


21.3 


118 


26.5 




2.9 


22-28 




11 


5.8 


37 


o o 




3.4 


29 -Jan, 


,3 


26 


13.8 


34 


18.9 




3.2 



Totals 188 100 445 



5 



Age Distribution in Moose Spotting Area 



Wear 












Class 


Bulls 


Cows 


Total 


% 


of Kill 


Calf 


10 


3 


13 


6, 


,9% (of total 

Kill) 










(% 


of Aged Adults) 


I 


3 


2 


5 




9.6 


II 


2 


1 


3 




5.8 


III 


2 


2 


4 




7,7 


IV 


4 


- 


4 




7.7 


V 


7 


3 


10 




19,2 


VI 


2 


6 


8 




15.4 


VII 


3 


2 


5 




9.6 


VIII 


3 


2 


5 




9.6 


IX 


4 


3 


7 




13.5 


Adult 












Unaged 


68 


55 


123 







Totals 



109 



Origin of Aircraft 



79 



188 



100% 



Fron the 214 pemits used it was determined that 118 
hunters used Canadian owned aircraft, 96 hunters used American owned 
aircraft. The majority of the Canadian aircraft would be commercial 
whereas most of the American registered aircraft were likely privately 
owned. 



Conclusion 

The effectiveness of aircraft in harvesting moose in remote 
areas is clearly demonstrated by the 87 per cent success, for the 
1963 season. However, the number of hunters taking out permits in 
1963 dropped from a high of 421 the previous year to 236. A number 
of factors may have contributed to this decline, among them being, 



6 

distance fron United States Border for American registered aircraft. 
Most small commercial aircraft in the area were involved with outpost 
canps and were not available to noose spotters. 

Almost all of the hunting effort took place in the 
southern half of the moose spotting area, with Trout Lake and 
Sydney Lake being the most popular localities. 

Some opposition to the spotting area as it now exists 
was registered by camp operators in the Red Lake area, therefore, 
a few changes in the boundary are being considered for next year to 
eliminate these trouble spots. 

Recommendations 

(1) That the experiment be continued in this area in 1964. 

(2) That minor changes be made in the boundary to eliminate 
the opposition to the area being made by a few Red Lake 
Outfitters. 

(3) That the present permit system be continued with maps 
supplied similar to those used in 1963. 

(4) That moose tagging be carried out in the experimental 
area, to provide information on exploitation rate and 
movements. 

Acknowledgements 

We would like to extend our thanks to all the department 
personnel throughout the region who took part in the issuing of 
permits and collection of questionnaire sheets. 



References 



Thompson, P. A. 1961 - A Report on Experimental Moose 
Hunting Kenora District, 1961. Unpublished 
District Report. 

Charlton, W. H. and R. B. Hall, 1962. Experimental Moose 
Hunting in Northwestern Ontario. Unpublished 
District Report. 




1 






i 



L 



• 



S^^.y^ 






1 inch =16 miles 



Appendix XI 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
THE GAME AND FISH ACT, 1961-62 
1963 
LICENCE TO SEARCH FOR MOOSE BY AIRCRAFT 



No. 2193 



Under The Game and Fish Act, 1961-62 and the regulations, and 
subject to the limitations thereof, this licence is granted to: 





Address 


while 


hunting 


under 


this 









To search for noose from an aircraft bearing registration No 

or No and otherwise hunt the animals authorized to be 

hunted by 



Resident Moose 
Non-Resident Moose 



Licence No 



in the following area : % 

This licence expires with the fourteenth day after its date of issue 



Date of issue, 



Issuing Officer 



Deputy Minister 



The Game and Fish Act, 1961-62 
REPORT OF LICENSEE AUTHORIZED TO USE AIRCRAFT 
TO SEARCH FOR MOOSE IN AN AREA DESIGNATED 
UNDER THE REGULATIONS 



No. 2193 



Area Hunted. .Aircraft Registration 

Dates of Hunting 
Hours Flown (each day) 
Number of Moose Seen (each day) 
Moose Killed: 
Male Adult 









































































1. - ., 










' 











Male Calf 



Date of Kill, 



Location of Kill 



Female Adult 
Female Calf 



Signature of Licensee 



8 - 



9 

MOOSE BROWSE SURVEY AND PELLET GROUP COUNT 
KENORA DISTRICT, 1963 

by 

R. B. Hall 

Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

On May 14, 1963 a moose browse survey and pellet 
group count was carried out at Maynard Lake in the 
Kenora District. The area surveyed was 1150 acres 
or 1.8 square miles. The survey method was designed 
according to instructions received from Head Office 
(April, 1963). 

A summary of the browse tally indicated a total 
of 11,141 living stems per acre. From the pellet 
group count, it was estimated that the winter popu- 
lation was 16.3 moose per square mile. 

Although the carrying capacity of the range appears 
to be quite high, the degree of utilization and muti- 
lation also appears to be fairly high. There is 
evidence that the deer are competing with the moose 
for the available browse on this area. 



Introduction 

A moose browse survey was initiated in the Kenora District 
in the spring of 1963, as outlined by the Southern Research Station 
at Maple. This was the first attempt at moose range assessment 
in this district. 

The area chosen for the survey is near the boundaries 
of the 1963 aerial moose spotting area. From previous aerial plot 
surveys and track count surveys, this area indicated a high density 
of moose. A preliminary flight over the area showed that it sup- 
ported a good winter moose population and would lend itself to this 
type of survey. 

As part of the survey, a pellet group count was made for 
the purpose of estimating the moose population per square mile. 



10 



description of Area 



Maynard Lake, located 5C air miles north-east of Kenora, 
is part of the English River chain. Until the recent completion 
of a pulp and paper company road, the only easy access to this 
area was by aircraft. It is now utilized to some degree by hunters 
using boats. 

The area surveyed was 1150 acres on the east side of 
Maynard Lake. 

The forest is of a mixed wood type, made up mainly of 
white birch, trembling aspen, jack pine, black and white spruce. 
There is a wide variation in the age classes of the stand, which 
appears to be due, in part, to gradual over -maturing. This area 
has not been affected by logging operations. The spruce budworm 
attack of recent years has also served to open the stand and bring 
about the growth of shrubs such as hazel, mountain maple and 
juneberry. Much of the killed timber has blown down. 

The area is regenerating to mainly white birch, aspen 
and balsam. 

The soil conditions are clay loam over clay with 
granite outcrops on the higher ground. The topography is gently 
rolling and well drained. 

Survey Crew 

To facilitate carrying out the survey in one day, three 
separate survey crews were used and lines run were arranged so 
that they would be continuous, (see map) In future surveys, the 
lines would be run parallel so that the area would be more system- 
atically covered. This should eliminate the shortage of plots which 
occurred in this survey. 

The survey crews were as follows: 

(1) A. Olsen and W. Hawley 

(2) W. Charlton and D. Moon 

(3) R. Hall and C. Lindstrom 

Method 

Transportation to the area was supplied by Otter aircraft. 
Six of the Kenora Fish and Wildlife staff took part in the survey. 

Using the lake shore as one boundary, three two-man 



11 

teams ran a total of six cruise lines, (see attached map) Compass 
and pacing were used to run the lines with a measured plot being 
tallied every five chains. Plot size (13. 2 ' x 66 f ) and method of 
tally was as per instructions. Seventy-nine pXots were tallied 
which was 7 short of the desired 86. (64 x V^l.8 sq. mi. ■ 86) 

Table I gives the results of the browse survey. 

Population Estimate from Pellet Groups 

The number of pellet groups on the 79 plots ranged from 
to 10 with the total groups being 104. The average group per 
plot was 104/79 ■ 1.32. The number of days of pellet deposition 
was calculated as 200 from date of leaf fall. A daily deposition 
rate of 13 was used. 

1. Average number of pellet groups per acre: 

Average per plot x 50 
1.32 x 50 - 66.0 

2. Moose days per square mile: 

Pellet groups per acre x 640 
Deposition rate (13) 

66 x 640 «/n 
O 3249 

3. Moose per square mile: 

Moose days per square mile 

Number of days of pellet deposition 

3249 - r o -i 

?on =16.3 moose per sq. mile 

Confidence Limits 

An attempt was made to establish 957o confidence limits 
on the above figures with the result that negative values were 
encountered. This indicates that there is a weakness in the 
sampling method with too many zero plots occurring. It appears 
as though large plots are required to reduce the number of zero 
plots, thus increasing their significance. 

Data on Pellet Count 

Pellet groups per plot 0123456789 10 Total 
No. of plots 33 21 10 10 - 3 - - 1 - 1 79 



•■•".' 



••• , , r . 



12 

It appears to be the nature of the terrain which accounted 
for the large number of plots as well as the occasional high count. 
Some of the plots fell in dense deadfall, while others fell directly 
in clear spots between the deadfall. 

Observations 

From the summary of the browse survey the total of 11,141 
living stems per acre indicates a good carrying capacity for this 
range. More than half the available browse is made up of hazel, 
which tallied 6,503 living stems per acre. Balsam and soft maple 
are also available in good numbers. Mountain ash, the highly pre- 
ferred moose food, was not found on any of the plots. 

Although there is a good supply of browse available, the 
population estimate of 16.3 moose per square mile is also high. 
The degree of utilization for each species ranged from 19.4% to 
66.6% and this also appears quite high. Balsam which made up 12.7% 
of the available browse and is normally thought of as one of the 
less desirable winter moose foods was 21.2% browsed. 

Very few of the stems have been killed by browsing with 
the exception of aspen (10.97o). This species appears to be 
easier killed by browsing because of the nature of the stems. 
Hazel, juneberry, soft maple and aspen show the highest degree of 
mutilation, the highest being hazel at 35.67». 

It was noted from casual observations along the cruise 
lines that the area also supports a good population of deer. Many 
pellet groups and fresh tracks were in evidence. It may be wise 
to incorporate deer pellet group counts on future surveys to 
determine the degree to which the deer and moose are competing for 
the available browse. 



There was no evidence of dead moose or deer on the plot 



Comments 



Little difficulty was encountered in carrying out the 
survey as instructed. 

It is felt that it would be an advantage in determining 
the accuracy of the pellet group count if an aerial count of moose 
was made during the winter months. 

It appears impossible to separate deer browsing from 
moose browsing, however, by incorporating a deer pellet group count 
into further surveys it would help to assess the degree of competi- 
tion between these two species. 



13 

Acknowledgments 

I would like to thank the staff who ably assisted in the 
collection of field data. Special thanks go to W. Charlton, Fish 
and Wildlife Supervisor and M. Linklater for their assistance in 
the preparation of this report. The preliminary statistical 
analysis of the data was carried out by G. McGeachy and W. Charlton. 
The significance of the data was discussed further with R. Boultbee. 

Literature Cited 

Vozeh, G. E. and H. G. Gumming, 1960. A Moose Population Census and 
Winter Browse Survey in Gogama District , Ontario. 
Presented at the 22nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife 
Conference, Toronto, December 5-7, 31 pp. 



14 




Scales 1" » 40 chn. 



Maynard Lake Browse Survey - 1963 



"J... 



I r > 



\ i T 



TABLE I 






is 






■i i 


SPECIES 


Freq. 
Index 


Living Stems 
per acre r 


% of 
Stems Browsed 


% Stems 
Killed 


% Stems 
Mutilated 


% of 

Available 
Brows 2 


White Birch 


.46 


614 


34.0 


.7 


6.8 


J J 


Balsam 


.58 


1416 


21.2 


.6 


1.8 


1 12,7 


Willow 


.04 


13 


66.6 


— 


-- 


0.1 


Maple 


.53 


1312 


44.9 


6.5 


15.9 


11.8 


Dogwood 


.18 


259 


43.5 


3.1 


— 


2,3 


Cherries 


.10 


129 


19.4 


-- 


-- 


1 t% 


Juneberries 


.29 


343 


53.7 


-- 


17.1 


3.1 


Poplar 


.43 


547 


58.8 


10,9 


15.3 


4.9 


Hazel 


.76 


6508 


33.7 


1.0 


35.6 


58 .4 
100.0 


11,141 



16 

Maynard Lake Moose Browse Survey 
1963 



Frequency Index (79 plots) 



Species 


Occurrence (plots) 


Occurrence (7 ) 


White Birch 


36 


46 


Balsam 


46 


58 


fountain Ash 


nil 





Willow 


3 


4 


yiaple 


42 


53 


Dogwood 


14 


18 


Cherries 


8 


10 


Juneberries 


22 


29 


Poplar 


34 


43 


Hazel 


60 


76 



Living Stems per Acre by Species EL x 330 

79 



Species 


EL 


Living Stems per Acre 


White Birch 


147 


614 


Balsam 


339 


1416 


Mountain Ash 


— 


-- 


Willow 


3 


13 


Maple 


314 


1312 


Dogwood 


62 


259 


Cherries 


31 


129 


Juneberries 


82 


343 


Poplar 


131 


547 


Hazel 


1558 


6508 



17 



Per cent of Stems Browsed ( EB x 

( EL 



Species 


EB 


EL 


Per cent Browsed 


White Birch 


50 


147 


34.0 


Balsam 


72 


339 


21.2 


Mountain Ash 


— 


-- 


— 


Willow 


2 


3 


66.7 


Maple 


141 


314 


44.9 


Dogwood 


27 


62 


43.5 


Cherries 


6 


31 


19.4 


Juneberries 


44 


82 


53.7 


Poplar 


77 


131 


58.8 


Hazel 


525 


1558 


33.7 



Per cent of Stems Killed (EK 



(EK + EL 



x 100 



Species 


EK 


EL 


Per cent Killed 




White Birch 


1 


147 


0.68 




Balsam 


2 


339 


0.59 




Ash 


— 


-- 


— 




Willow 


— 


3 


-- 




Maple 


22 


314 


6.55 




Dogwood 


2 


62 


3.13 




Cherries 


— 


31 


— 




Juneberries 


— a* 


82 


-- 




Poplar 


16 


131 


10.88 




Hazel 


15 


1558 


0.95 





18 



Per cent of Stems which show Hedging ( EH 100 ^ 

(EL ) 











Species 


EH 


EL 


Per cent Hedged 


White Birch 


10 


147 


6.80 


Balsam 


6 


339 


1.77 


Ash 


— 


-- 


— 


Willow 


-- 


3 


— 


haple 


50 


314 


15.92 


Dogwood 


-„ 


62 


»- 


Cherries 


-_ 


31 


— 


Juneberries 


14 


82 


17.07 


Poplar 


20 


131 


15.27 


Hazel 


555 


1558 


35.62 





Per cent of Available Browse ( EL (single) ,« n ) 

(EL (total) x iUU ) 



Species 


EL 


Available Browse (%) 


Birch 


147 


5.51 


Balsam 


33$ 


12.71 


Ash 


— 


-- 


Willow 


3 


0.11 


Maple 


314 


11.77 


Dogwood 


62 


2.32 


Cherries 


31 


1.16 


Juneberries 


82 


3.07 


Poplar 


131 


4.91 


Hazel 


1558 


58.42 


Total 


2667 





19 

PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT - 1963 

by 

L. J. Stock, Biologist, 

Lake Erie District 



Abstract 

During the two-day hunt, (October 31 and November 1,) 
with a bag limit of nine cocks and two hens, 1,014 
licencees bagged 8,492 pheasants, 6,545 cocks and 
1,947 hens; 27.6 per cent bagged the limit of 11 birds. 
Total birds bagged per hunter and hunter-hour were 
9.03 and 0.85, respectively. The total estimated 
crippling loss was 1,800 (hit and not retrieved) - 
21.2 per cent of the bag. The total kill was estimated 
at 10,292 birds. A total of 1,306 were reported seen 
dead and not picked up. Compared to the previous 
year the number of cocks bagged decreased by 2.6 
per cent, the number of hens increased by 16.6 per 
cent and the total bag increased 1.3 per cent. The 
number of hunters increased by 153 (17.8%>) over 1962. 
The post shoot population is estimated at 17,314 - 
3,410 cocks and 13,904 hens. Other hunter success 
and population data are presented. 



Statistics 








LICENSES SOLD 








Non-resident 


374 


sr 


86% 


Resident 


140 


= 


14% 


Total 


1,014 






Increase in total hunters 








over 1962 


153 


S3 


17. 


Number of hunters in 




the field 









1st day 1,014 

2nd day 787 = 77.6% 

Bag limit for both days - ° cocks. 2 hens ■ 11 birds 



Licenses Sold continued 
Questionnaires 

Returned 

Discarded 
Used to 
compile report 

Total hunters reporting 



20 

144 

11 
133 
170 



= 16. 76% (Sample size) 



HUNTER SUCCESS FROM HUNTER QUESTIONNAIRES 

Number of hunters reporting 

Hours hunted 

Hours per hunter in the field 

Birds bagged: Cocks 

Hens 
Total 

No shooting limit 

Per cent of total 

Bagged per hunter Cocks 

Hens 
Total 



Bagged per hunter- 
hour Cocks 

Hens 
Total 



1st day 


2nd day 


Total 


170 


132 




170 


1,047 


623 


1. 


,670 


6.16 


4.72 






798 


299 


1, 


,097 


238 


89 




327 


1,036 


388 


1 


,424 


14 


33 




47 


8.2 


25 




27.6 


4.7 


2.26 




6.96 


1.4 


0.67 




2.07 


6.1 


2.93 




9.03 


0.76 


0.48 




0.65 


0.23 


0.14 




0.19 


0.99 


0.62 




0.85 



21 



HIT AND NOT RETRIEVED - Crippling Loss 



Per cent of bag 


1st day 


2nd day 


Total 


Cocks 


20.1 


21.4 


20.7 


Hens 


26.1 


18.0 


23.9 


Total 


21.7 


20.6 


24.9 


Per hunter 








Cocks 


0.95 


0.48 


0.75 


i 

Hens 


0.36 


0.12 


0.26 


Total 


1.32 


0.61 


1.0 


Estimated total 








crippling loss 








Cocks 


963 


378 


1,341 


Hens 


365 


94 


459 


Total 


1,323 


472 


l s 800 


SEEN DEAD AND NOT 


PICKED UP 






Per Hunter 


1st day 


2nd day 




Cocks 


0.00 


0.05 




Hens 


0.6C 


0.63 




Total 


0.76 


0.68 




Estimated Total 








Cocks 


01 


39 


120 


Hens 


690 


496 


1,186 


Total 


771 


535 


1,306 



Per cent of bag 
(total both days) 

Cocks 



1.8 (of cocks bagged) 



Hens 
Total 



61.0 (of hens bagged) 
15.4 



• , I 

- - 

id ■ -■" 



. 



■■■ 



22 



TOTAL BAG ESTIMATE 



1st dav Cocks 


4,766 






Hens 
Total 




1,420 


6,186 


2nd day Cocks 


1,779 






Hens 
Total 




527 


2,306 


Totals 


6,545 


1,947 


8,492 


TOTAL KILL ESTIMATE 








Birds bagged 








Cocks 


6,545 






Hens 
Total 




1,947 


8,492 


Crippling Loss 








Cocks 


1,341 






Hens 
Total 


7,836 


459 


1,800 


Grand Totals 


2,406 


10,292 



23 



BAG AND CRIPPLING LOSS - Two years compared 





1962 


1963 


Diffen 
No. 


snce 


Total Bag 










Cocks 


6,716 


6,545 


-171 


- 2.6 


Hens 
Total 


1,670 
8,386 


1,947 
8 ? 492 


+277 
+106 


+16.6 
+ 1.3 


Crippling Loss 
Hit and not 
retrieved 










Cocks 


1,760 


1,341 


-419 


-23.8 


Hens 
Total 


297 
2,057 


459 
1,800 


+162 
-257 


+54.5 
-12.5 


Seen dead and 
not picked up 










Cocks 


261 


120 


-141 


-54.0 


Hens 
Total 


818 
1,079 


1,186 
1,306 


+368 
+227 


+45.0 
+21.0 


POPULATION ESTIMATE - 


1963 


Cocks 


Hens 








Total 



Pre- shoot population (native) 

(From July survey) 

Imports (October) 
Total 

Total Kill 

Post- shoot population (native) 

" (imports) 
Grand Total 



9,296 



1,000 
10,296 

7,886 

2,410 

1,000 
3,410 



15,811 



15,811 

2,407 

13,404 

500 
13,904 



26,107 
10,292 
15,815 



17,314 



24 

Comments 

Questionnaires were not mailed to the hunters prior to the 
shoot as in 1962, but were distributed and collected on the Island. 

With the total number of licencees increased 17.8 per cent 
over the previous year the total bag of cocks was down slightly 
(2.6%). Some reduction might have been expected when the pre-shoot 
population estimate made in July was down some 22.5 per cent. However, 
rain on the first day probably was a factor in reducing the bag. With 
good weather on the first day the total kill would probably have 
equalled or exceeded that of 1962. 

Our estimates indicate that the population was not 
overshot in either year, in fact the number of hens left after the 
shoot is still over 3,000 higher than our target of a hen per acre. 

The percentage of hunters shooting their quota declined 
from 80 to 27.6 and the percentage of hunters in the field on the 
second day increased from 51 per cent to 77.6 per cent. These 
differences reflect the poorer hunting conditions on the first day 
and the increase in the bag from eight to nine cocks. 

There was a satisfying decrease in the crippling loss of 
cocks. However, the reverse is true for the number of hens seen 
dead and not picked up. This increased by 45 per cent and amounted 
to 61 per cent of the hens bagged. Each hunter saw, on the average 1.17 
hens left dead in the field. 

For a detailed description of the supervision and 
hunting conditions the reader is referred to the Report on the 
shoot by Senior Conservation Officer K. J. Juck dated November 14th, 
1963. 

Acknowledgments 

The shoot was supervised by Senior Conservation Officer 
K. J. Juck and Conservation Officer 0. L. Mellick and their excellent 
work is appreciated. 

Further assistance was provided by Conservation Officer 
R. W, Finch and Biologists D. R. Johnston and L. J. Stock. 

Thanks also to the Customs Officers, the O.P.P. detachment 
and all others who co-operated in supervising the hunt. 



■. 



. ; 



! . 



25 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON A SUB-MARGINAL AGRICULTURAL 

AREA AND FACTORS AFFECTING FOREST MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA 

by 
J. W. Keenan 
Timber Supervisor, Tweed District 

Abstract 

Agricultural endeavour on the Pre-Cambrian Shield or on 
thin soil over limestone seldom provides adequate 
income. Thousands of acres have been abandoned or less 
intensively farmed, especially since recent technology 
has enhanced yield on good agricultural soil. Many of 
the remaining "farmers" have to augment their income 
from forestry and/or tourism. It is not usual that 
there is enough affluence to provide for reasonable 
management of private woodland. This rural population, 
however, is an eager and skilled work force for silvi- 
cultural and protection operations on nearby Crown land. 

Introduction 

An estimated 80fo of the Tweed District is not suitable for 
agricultural use under current economic conditions. The major 
part of this area lies on the Canadian Shield, but it also 
includes a substantial acreage of shallow soils over limestone 
in the southern part of the district. All the 1,335,000 acres 
of Crown land, and most of the 21,000 acres of agreement forest 
land is located within this basically non-agricultural area. 
However, despite its very low agricultural potential, a signif- 
icant part of the area is still being farmed. 

It is perhaps useful to briefly review the historical back- 
ground of settlement in this area. The first settlers arrived 
with the earliest logging operators 100 to 150 years ago. 
Farms were established to supply the local logging camp market 
as a more economical alternative to toting supplies from the 
relatively distant agricultural areas. When the timber opera- 
tors completed their major operations and moved on, most of the 
settlers stayed on the land, mainly because of the lack of any 
satisfactory alternative. Their numbers had been augmented 
after the late l$50 T s by settlers moving up the newly established 
colonization roads to take advantage of the free grant lands 
offered as an incentive to would-be farmers. By 1900, however, 
it had become obvious that this area was something less than an 
agricultural paradise and the movement off the land was under 
way. Depopulation and land abandonment was steady, but generally 
unspectacular, until after the Second World War, when changing 
agricultural technology and a more general awareness of "how the 
other half lives" resulted in a much accelerated movement. As a 
result, at least 150-200,000 acres of land have been abandoned, 
and the process shows no signs of slowing down. 



26 

Nevertheless, a tenacious remnant population of farmers, 
or part-time farmers, still remains scattered throughout the 
area. The population density of the affected townships is less 
than 10 persons per square mile according to the most recent 
population statistics. The Ontario Agricultural College has 
recently published a series of Background Studies for Resource 
Development in the Tweed District. These studies were carried 
out co-operatively by O.A.C., the Canada Dept. of Agriculture, 
and our Department. Their study on sources and levels of income 
for 466 open country residents show that the sources of income , 
in order of importance, were (a) jobs away from home — 45.5%; 
(b) sale of farm products — 27.5%; (c) government transfer pay- 
ments, i.e. family allowances, pensions, etc. — 21.6%. It is 
significant that only a little over J of the income was earned 
from farming, and the study group included residents of some 
of the better agricultural areas. Forty-six percent of the 
residents enumerated had a net household income of $2000 or 
less. In a special study of low income families, the average 
net income per family was found to be $1138 and the median 
income was $1500. The median age of the male heads of 150 
low income rural families was 50 years, and the average age 
was 53 • 3 years. It is significant that only two of these men 
were under 25 years of age while 10% were over 70 years. Those 
engaged in full-time or part-time farming were found to have 
been farming for an average of 29 years. 

In summation, then, we are concerned with a low income 
but relatively stable population comprised mainly of landowners 
well past middle age with little evidence of interest in 
succession to the land on the part of the younger element of 
the population. These farmers are tied to their land by choice, 
in some cases, but more frequently by circumstances. They 
simply can T t afford to move off their land. 

This, then, is the background against which we must consi- 
der the practice, or lack of practice, as the case may be, of 
timber management in this area. 

Throughout the area which is not within normal commuting 
distance of the more industrialized area, along the Lake Onta- 
rio shoreline, forestry and recreation are important, and in 
many cases the only off -farm sources of employment. Since 
recreation is a factor only during a relatively short period, 
forestry assumes a position of major importance. The large 
number of sawmills scattered throughout the area recruit many of 
their employees from the surrounding rural area during the summer 
period. Logging, under which I include both woods operations and 
the transport of forest products, offers a year-round employment 
opportunity, and the increased scale of activity during the 
fall and winter period coincides with the off-season of the 
part-time farmer. The average daily wage of employees in 
sawmilling and logging is low compared with most other areas — 
probably averaging from $8 to $10 per day at best. This is 
reflected in piecework rates, and we find that a normal rate 
per cord of rough hardwood pulpwood stacked at roadside is from 
$5 to $6 — and this applies to areas where the average cut per 
acre is as low as 5 cords. Compare this with northern Ontario 



2,7 

where, in unionized areas, daily bushwork earnings of $30-$2+.0 
per day are not uncommon and the average is probably well in 
excess of $20. What effect does this have on forestry practice? 
It all boils down to a much higher degree of tolerance of 
applied timber management. Since there is often no real alter- 
native to woods work, and the wage expectation is low, it is 
possible to apply silvicultural techniques which would be unlikely 
to find acceptance in more prosperous areas, It should be noted 
here that there is another factor which favours this condition, 
and that is the relatively strong competition for a limited 
resource, The large number of sawmills compete strongly for the 
fairly modest annual allowable cut of sawtimber, and are prepared 
to accept a fairly large proportion of lower-grade timber. The 
net result of these two influences is a very satisfactory level 
of silvicultural practice and wood utilization. For instance, 
in the Tweed District we marked almost 100$ of the pine and 
spruce cut from Crown lands. We also mark at least 50% of all 
tolerant hardwood sawtimber, as well as marking almost 100% of 
the tolerant hardwood improvement cuts for hardwood pulpwood . 
This latter product illustrates the point I am trying to make. 
The price f.o.b. Trenton for hardwood pulpwood from areas in 
excess of 100 miles from Trenton is $13.25 per cord. The haul- 
ing cost for this distance is $10 per cord and the Crown dues 
are 75p. This leaves $7-50 to pay for cutting, skidding, piling, 
road building and the other costs associated with logging. And 
yet the demand to produce hardwood pulpwood in this area far 
exceeds the requirements of the Trenton mill. The hardwood 
pulpwood market , which has now been in existence for about $ 
years, has been a major contributing factor to the application 
of improved silvicultural techniques in hardwood stands. 

By way of comparison, hardwood pulpwood has found very lim- 
ited acceptance by operators in the Lindsay District. The forest 
is much the same and the hauling distance not appreciably greater, 
yet the annual cut of this product from Crown lands has increased 
very little over the laso 5 or 6 years. This, I believe, has 
been a matter of some concern to the Lindsay District staff. And 
in discussions with them, it would appear that the living standards 
of the rural population are just enough higher than those in the 
Tweed District to make pulpwood cutting unacceptable. 

It is my belief, therefore, that rather than resulting in a 
sacrifice of silviculture, the employment of the low income 
rural residents in woods operations is an important factor in 
our application of relatively intensive silvicultural techniques. 

It should also be noted that Department operations such as 
planting, stand improvement, and insect and disease control bene- 
fit from being able to attract a good quality of manpower at the 
normal Department pay rates. This generally results in high 
quality work at a very reasonable cost. On some of our stand 
improvement projects we have virtually the same casual staff that 
we started out with 6 or 7 years ago. These people have developed 
a high degree of skill in their work, and on occasions when it 
has become desirable to qui ckly expand the work program during 
the winter months, we have a readily available group of foremen 



The situation on Crown land, therefore, is very favourable. 
On agreement forest lands, because they tend to be somewhat 
closer to relatively more prosperous areas, the situation tends 
to be somewhat less satisfactory, but still quite acceptable. 
On private lands, the situation is generally unsatisfactory. 
The economic and social conditions which, with adequate govern- 
ment supervision and control, produce satisfactory timber manage- 
ment on Crown lands, in the absence of control produce very 
unsatisfactory conditions on most private forest lands. People 
who tend to live "from hand to mouth" can hardly be expected to 
show much concern for the future value of their timber lands. 
This applies not only to their presently forested lands but also 
to lands which should be reforested. Under the pressure of 
immediate cash requirements, private woodlots are subjected to 
successive highgrading operations which inevitably result in 
almost worthless remnant stands. It is also the common practice 
to carry out a merchantable clear-cut operation prior to the 
sale of private forest land, since forest values are still 
given little, if any, consideration in real estate appraisals. 
This general situation is not universal, since there are land- 
owners throughout the area with sufficient income from other 
sources to permit them the luxury of some timber management 
practices. It also has been our observation that many residents 
that earn a satisfactory income from Crown land operations 
carry over to their own lands the silvicultural practices learned 
from their Crown land experience. However, these more encourag- 
ing examples are in the minority, and the general level of 
silviculture on private lands in the low-income area is distres- 
sing to anyone interested in the practice of forestry. It 
continues to be quite clear that under present conditions the 
only landowners that can be expected to practice good forestry 
in the Tweed District are those that do not depend on their 
woodlots for essential revenue, and that can afford to carry 
out silvicultural practices more as a hobby than a necessity. 
Increased forest extension activity will have very little impact 
on any landowners other than those in this latter luxury category, 
If we wish to improve forest management on private lands in areas 
of sub-marginal agriculture, it seems to me that the only way is 
to acquire the land, either by Crown purchase or under the agree- 
ment forest scheme. This talk was given to the foresters in 
southern Ontario at Lindsay on March 17, 1964. 

This paper is presented in response to the suggestion that there 
is a sacrifice of silviculture to provide immediate social amen- 
ities. It is not my intention to suggest that the low-income 
levels prevalent throughout the area in question are a desirable 
condition. I believe that forest management in this area would 
benefit from permanent forest communities established at key 
points throughout the area, perhaps at locations where the soils 
are suitable for some agricultural use; and that the aim would 
be to provide an opportunity for year-round forest employment at 
a reasonable income level. 



29 



THE WOLF PROBLEM IN THE KEARNEY AREA 
1963-64 

by 
Carman 11, Douglas 
District Biologist, 
Parry Sound 



Abstract 

Due to demand a wolf control program was undertaken 
in the Burks Falls and Dorset Patrol Areas adjacent 
to Algonquin Park during the winter of 1962-63. 
Ground inspections 8 aerial surveys and the results 
of snaring activities have shown that the area sup- 
ports a relatively small population of wolves. The 
project is being continued this winter (1963-64). 
The training given to the Registered Trappers last 
winter has considerably reduced the scale on which 
the program is to be conducted this year. 



Late in October of 1962 the staff of the Parry Sound 
Forest District were asked to supervise a predator control project 
in the area bordering Algonquin Park in the Burks Falls and Dorset 
Patrol Areas. 

Two wolf trappers of proven ability, Andy Tyson and Frank 
Stanplecoskie were hired to work with Conservation Officers Bob 
Battrick and Bill Ellerington in their respective patrol areas. 
The Conservation Officers were detailed to contact the Registered 
Trappers and make all arrangements for the Government Trappers who 
could accompany each Registered Trapper, in turn, on his trapline 
area, train the nan in setting snares, assess the wolf density on 
the traplines, provide snares as deemed necessary and aid in the 
setting thereof. Each Registered Trapper would tend the snares on 
his area and the Government Trappers would revisit each of the 
Registered Trappers if and when time permitted. 

On October 29 and 30, 1962 9 Douglas met with the 
Registered Trappers at Kearney and Dwight, outlined this proposition 
and received assurance of the co-operation of these men. 

The approach of deer season and the regulations associated 
with the setting of snares during that period, plus the fact that 
most of the Registered Trappers were involved as guides or outfitters 
during deer season, precluded an immediate start on the project. 



30 

On November 15, Douglas net with Battrick, Tyson, Ellering- 
ton, Stanplecoskie and John Shannon at the Wildlife Research Station, 
Algonquin Park, to discuss all phases of and make final arrangements 
for this work. 

Immediately after deer season, on Monday, November 19, 
the Government Trappers began their work. 

It was not until mid- January that these men completed 
their initial visit to all traplines. A total of 22 Registered 
Traplines plus 3 large areas held under Resident Trapping licences 
were covered during this period . The area encompassed approximately 
500 square miles and 780 snares, provided by the Department, were 
set. To this may be added an undetermined number of snares owned 
by the Registered Trappers. 

The Government Trappers were asked to record the 
relative density of wolves on the traplines, with the following 
results, on the initial visit: 

Wolves "absent"-2 (add 1 more for trapper who declared 

this at the out set) 
Wolves "scarce"-13 
Wolves "cornmon"-10 

Some of the Registered Trappers, through illness, inability 
to travel in heavy snow or the acceptance of other employment, did 
not continue on their traplines throughout the winter. 

From January through March, the Government Trappers 
continued their work by revisiting the trapline areas and making 
any necessary changes. During this period it was necessary that 
Tyson be absent from the project for some tine on personal business. 

By the third week in March, however, 18 of the 25 areas 
had been revisited. Again the Government Trappers recorded their 
impressions of wolf density as follows: 

Wolves "absent" - 9 traplines 
Wolves "scarce" - 9 traplines. 



During the second visit, a further five snares were set 
by Tyson for a total of 785. 

It was the impression of both Government Trappers that 
the matter of wolf density throughout this entire area had been 
grossly over -exaggerated and that, in fact, these animals were 
very uncommon throughout the area in question. 



•I 



31 

During this sane period, in conjunction with the Wolf 
Research Program in the adjoining area of Algonquin Park, 
Conservation Officer Ellerington and the Research personnel made 
bi-weekly aerial surveys of the area under discussion to determine 
wolf densities and travel routes. From data gathered on these 
flights it appeared that the original wolf population in the area 
was approximately 27 wolves and that by the time the flying had 
to be halted, at least 10 of these had been taken by the trappers. 
At no tine were any data gathered which would confirm the contention 
that wolves were travelling from Algonquin Park in the large numbers 
reported by sone persons. Of course it was noted that the range 
of sone of the packs crossed the Park Boundary as would be expected 
but this was not the case in every instance and certainly nothing 
was learned which would lend support to a request that trappers 
be permitted to extend their wolf - trapping activities into the 
adjoining area in Algonquin Park. 

During the project at least five snares were lost, 
believed by the trappers to have captured wolves which had departed 
taking snare and all with them. 

If we consider these five snares as wolf captures then 
the total wolf-kill during the entire project was approximately 20, 

By no stretch of the imagination can 20 wolves, taken 
by 25 trappers, with the help of two highly-experienced Government 
Trappers using 705 Department snares and an undetermined number 
of privately-owned snares on an area of 500 square miles be 
considered as anything except a relatively small population of 
wolves. 

The results of the snaring, plus the observations of the 
Government Trappers and the data gathered on the aerial surveys 
all point to the same conclusion. The wolf population in the area 
studied by the project is relatively small. 

Rod Stanfield has the data on the age and sex composition 
of the wolves taken during this project for which it was possible 
to secure the whole head if not the entire carcass. 

Co-operation of the Registered Trappers during this 
project was just what might be expected. Some worked whole-heartedly 
and deserve high commendation, sone made a fair effort, some gave 
only lip-service and at least one, who has been most-vociferous 
throughout, before and since the project again showed his desire to 
gain fame (or infamy) by "all- talk, no do" but in any event there 
were no more than two wolves on or near his line during the initial 
visit of our Trapper and none at all in his area during the second 
visit so perhaps it doesn't really natter. What does, of course, 



• 



": ( • 






32 

natter is the fact that a few who seek fane or notoriety can 
easily do so on a platfom of "pity~the-deer-dann the wolves-and- 
down-with-the-Departnent." This is especially easy when the deer 
have decreased due to severe winters, with consequent die-off and 
reproductive decline and a serious decline in deer habitat. Such 
a platfom is in no way hanpered by the fact that Civil Servants 
are generally well-advised to stay "civil" in the face of such 
canpaigns, since they will not necessarily find thenselves icnune 
to public attack engendered by such a person regardless of that 
person's lack of knowledge, disregard of co-operation and offers 
of co-operation and regardless of the attacker's original intent 
which night, after all have only been a desire for self-aggrandiz- 
nent. 

Without further consideration of the psychology which 
engendered the project., I believe we have denonstrated the fact 
that wolves are not as connon in the area as sone would have had 
us believe. Perhaps, after all, the project did serve a really 
useful purpose in that the Predator-Research Progran was thereby 
able to continue without interruption or conplication in the adjoin- 
ing area of Algonquin Park and was, thus in the final analysis, a 
worthwhile undertaking and a true success. 

I can hardly conclude this without remarking that in a 
snail and very part- tine project with which I was concerned at 
White River, sone years ago, two of our officers took nearly the 
sane nunber of wolves although the area in which they worked, the 
equipnent which they used, the cost involved and the tine devoted 
to it was so restricted as to appear as nothing in the face of the 
venture reported on here. This, of course, just points up again 
relative scarcity of wolves in the 500 square niles we have studied. 
It is unfortunate that the question of predators has been ever thus 
regardless of the century or the country involved. Too bad that 
every child reads "Little Red Riding Hood" and the "Three Little 
Pigs"! 

On December 15. 1963, 1 attended a neeting of the Parry 
Sound - Muskoka Deer Hunt Canp Association in Huntsville. This 
was the neeting at which so nany wolf-criers had so nuch sport at 
the Department 5 s expense only the year before. 

Since that tine I have worked a bit with this group and 
have co-operated with then in their venture, providing then with 
the records of nanes and addresses of deer-canp owners and working 
for a while on one of their connittees until soneone decided that 
this was a bad position in which to place a Civil Servant and I was 
relieved of ny obligation in this regard. 



33 

At their latest meeting I was the sole representative of 
the Department, the meeting was very orderly and well-conducted, I 
was well received and accorded every courtesy by this group of at 
least 200 hunters, the wolf question was not raised at all, there 
was a sincere request for a continuation of our deer-habitat 
assessment and improvement programs and the Department definitely 
came out on top. Certainly this is in sharp contrast to the 
previous meeting when strange Lands and Forests uniforms and 
personnel were conspicuous throughout the room, where philosophical 
dissertations found no philosophers to accept the verbiage and the 
Department in general was "shot down in flames". I look forward 
to the continued good-will of this group which can certainly help 
or hinder, through public pressure, our efforts at game management. 
We have only so many officers with which to conduct management 
surveys. Any spur-of-the-moment projects which divert our limited 
manpower detracts from these surveys and the ensuing management 
projects. In all fairness we cannot divert men from one area to 
support other areas except to the detriment of these other locations. 
If through pressure we are forced to digress in an area then we 
have no alternative than to write-off for the present the surveys 
and projects which would otherwise be undertaken. Our staff is 
simply too small to permit the flexibility which would allow such 
digression. 

I believe that the hunters in the Kearney area and 
adjoining areas are now ready to accept deer-yard management as 
the answer to the problem and they ifish to see this work go forward. 

As often as time permits, our conservation officers survey 
deer yarding areas and submit reports for their management. Within 
the limits of our staff we confirm these surveys and arrange for 
the conduct of management projects. 

Apparently a "howlalot" found sympathy for his pleas that 
the wolf was still the 1964 culprit in part of this study area and 
we were asked, again, to conduct the project. The request filtered 
down to us much too late for a full-blown effort to be worthily 
organized. However, it was agreed that we would accomplish our 
purpose if the Burks Falls and Dorset Officers, (Bob Battrick and 
Bill Ellerington) were to contact each of the Registered Trappers 
with whom we worked last year and arrange for Gordon Car swell, 
Predator Control Officer, to give such aid and assistance as is 
deemed necessary to have the project continue this year. Most of 
the trappers have or have been reissued with the snares set for 
them last year and it is apparent that the more interested trappers 
are putting them out. This project was layed out on January 3rd and 
most of the trappers in the Dorset Patrol Area have been contacted 
by Car swell and Ellerington. Contact with the trappers in the Burks 
Falls Patrol gets underway this week. A preliminary report will soon 
be issued on this 1964 work. 



34 

Of course, this project, the worthiness of which nay be 
adjudged frco the foregoing is going to occupy the tine of three 
officers who still have their regular duties to perform. (It should 
be noted that Car swell, our Predator Control Officer, still has his 
own Patrol Area to administer as a regular Conservation Officer). 
None of these officers hesitate to work overtime for hours or days 
as circumstances warrant. However, there are only so nany hours 
or days available and those spent on one project are lost to any 
other. We cannot, therefore, expect to proceed with deer yard 
surveys and projects if the nen are diverted to other work. We 
have no others to fill-in for then while they engage in other 
projects. The outcone is obvious. It is unfortunate that worthy 
projects nust be set aside for those less commendable. I believe 
that our deer hunters are ready to accept deer yard management. If 
we are not compelled to engage in too many other pursuits I believe 
that we can give it to them. Support in this is necessary at 
every level. I believe we have the support of the vast majority 
of the private individuals concerned. 

Acknowledgments 

I wish to express my sincere thanks for the co-operation 
of Conservation Officers Bob Battrick and Bill Ellerington, Govern- 
ment Trappers Andy Tyson and Frank Stanplecoskie, John Shannon of 
the Maple Station and others in the Research Branch, all of whom 
did a great deal more than I have covered in the report, to further 
this Wolf Control project. I would indeed be remiss if I did not 
also express my gratitude to those trappers whose co-operation made 
this project possible and whose hospitality engendered a spirit 
of goodwill not always possible in rather adverse circumstances. 
Last, but certainly not least, my thanks to pilots "Yorky" Fiskar 
and Tommy Cooke whose interest in the aerial surveys made them a 
success. If I have unintentionally omitted anyone the : ' thanks to 
him, tool" 



35 

REPORT ON THE COMMERCIAL BAIT-FISH INDUSTRY 
FOR LAKE SIMCCE DISTRICT IN 1963 

by 

A. S. Holder 
District Biologist 

Abstract 

A report of the licences issued, harvest, gross 
revenue, investment and employment in the bait- fish 
industry is given. On the basis of a 51 per cent 
return of questionnaires, total catch is estimated 
as 174,062 dozen live minnows and 30,478 pounds of 
preserved minnows. Total revenue is estimated as 
$79,457.00. Comparisons drawn with last year show 
an increase in both catch and revenue. 



The bait-fish industry in the Lake Simcoe District in 
1963 was evaluated by means of the same questionnaire as used in 
1962. (See 1962 report for sample). The shortcomings of this 
questionnaire are well understood, but it was felt that use of 
the same form would result in better completion by the fishermen. 
Some improvement was noted this year. 

One problem encountered this year has been the difficulty 
of getting returns in before the March deadline. Operators in our 
District were asked to fill in the return by January 31; however, 
in practice most filed a return when applying for their new licence. 
As yet, many have not made application for their 1964 licence. 

The returns received, on which this report is based, 
constitute only 51 per cent of the total harvesting licences 
issued. Those holding only Dealers' licences were not questioned. 
In the following sections adjustments have been made in an attempt 
to estimate returns for the total industry. 

Number of Licences Issued 

A total of 169 bait-fish harvesting licences (seine, dip 
and trap) were issued in 1963 throughout the District. This is a 
considerable increase over 1962 when 138 were sold. The number of 
Preserving licences also increased. Slightly fewer Dealers 1 licences 
were issued. 



r/o.. r:jnp 



' ; :_ _f..' 
• '• " . f - - 



c.':J 'V; y'.' s.^ 






36 
Details of 1963 licence sales are given as follows: 

Type New Renewal Total 

Seine 28 81 109 

Dip 16 37 53 

Trap 1 (4 traps) 6 (32 traps) 7 (36 traps) 

Preserving 19 55 74 

Dealer 17 40 57 

Bait-fish Harvest a nd Sales Value 

As in past years the fishermen were asked to report 
catch under the headings of chub, sucker, shiner and other for 
live sale., and under preserved minnows. Results for 1963 show 
an estimated total catch for the District of 174,064 dozen of 
live minnows and 30 , 478 pounds of preserved or salted minnows 
with a total sales value of $79^459. GO. This compares to estimates 
made of the 1962 catch of 161,423 dozen live minnows and 24,045 
pounds of preserved minnows with a total sales value of $55,680.00. 

Details of the 1963 operations are as follows: 

Species Reported Estimated Reported Estimated Total Mean 
Catch Total Catch Sales Sales Value Price 

Value 



$ 4,536.00 - 65c/doz. 
9,388.00 - 52C 



Sold_liv2 






Chub 


5,973 


dos 


Sucker 


17.885 


n 


Shiner 


61,035 


in 


Other 


3,714 


ct 



It 



17,324.00 - 28c " 



1,452.00 - 39c 



t> 



Sub total B?j6C7 n 174,062 doz, $32,700.00 $ 63,519.00 

Preserved 

Shiner 15,690 pounds 30,478 lbs, $ 8,205.00 $ 15,938.00 52c lb. 



Total *478,842 doz, $79,457.00 

•'•Obtained by converting preserved minnows in pounds to dozens by use 
of the conversion factor of 10 dozen per pound. 



37 



In vestment in Equipnent 



The questionnaire in 1963 as in the previous year asked 
for a lump- sun estimate of investment in equipment. Individuals were 
cautioned to only include boats and trucks if 50 per cent or more of 
their use was in the bait-fish industry. Average investment listed 
in 1963 was $390,00 as compared to $281 o 00 in 1962. Details of 
the reported investment are as follows: 



Number Reporting Reported Investment Estimated Total Mean Range 
__ „__ . Investment ___. „ 

68 $26,529.00 $54,013.00 $390.00 $10-4000 

Employment 

The employment section of the questionnaire was rather 
poorly completed; however, as in previous years, it is plain that 
the industry provides only a limited amount of part-time employment 
(sixty- five operators completed this section) three did not work 
themselves, while the remaining 62 reported that they spent an 
average of n:lne days each in the business. In addition 56 men were 
hired for an average period of 37 days. No attempt was made to 
adjust this figure to represent the entire industry in the District. 

D iscuss ion 

Three years of collecting data have pointed out the 
difficulty of obtaining accurate results by means of voluntary 
returns o In particular, unless a deadline date is set by regulation 
for filing these returns ? it will not be possible to report on the 
industry by March Our feelings on bait- fish licencing and returns 
have been submitted in a Regional Report on Bait Fish and need not 
be detailed here. 






38 

REVIEW OF THE BONNECHERE RIVER - GOLDEN LAKE 
WALLEYE TAGGING PROGRAM - 1963 
PEMBROKE DISTRICT 

by 

J c F. Gardner 

District 3ioIogist 



Abstract 

A tagging prcgran in April s 1963 was designed to 
study the walleyes utilizing the Tranore dan spawning 
bed on the Bonnechere River Efforts were nade to 
obtain data on walleye distribution, spawning 
population estinates 3 physical condition of the fish 
and the degree of angler exploitation. Sane doubt 
was expressed that the Tranore spawning population 
contributes to the total walleye population of Golden 
Lake. Further work Is needed over the next two or 
three years in order to prove or disprove this con- 
tention, Reeennendaticns are given for future nanage- 
nent procedures-, 



Introduction 

In April of 1963, a yellow walleye (Stizostedion vitreun ) 
tagging progran was begun at the Tranore dan spawning bed on the 
Bonnechere River between Golden Lake and Round Lake. For sone 
years this has been a well known spawning site for adult walleyes 
ascending the Bonnechere River frco Golden Lake during the spring 
run. 

Purpose 

(a) to study the distribution of walleyes in Golden Lake upon 
their return froa the Tranore dan spawning bed, 

(b) to utilize the percentage of tag returns as a neans of 
neasuring angler exploitation on Golden Lake. 

(c) to attenpt to estinate the total nunber of walleyes utilizing 
the Tranore dan spawning area, 

(d) to allow an opportunity to exanine the physical condition of 
the fish and collect sex and length data. Scale sanples were 
not taken since it was thought this phase could nore easily be 
acconplished during the sunoer creel census on Golden Lake. 



39 

Procedure 

Due to the difficulties encountered in 1962 with regard to 
flooding;, an arrangement was nade to withhold the closing of the 
Tramore dan until spring flood waters had crested and begun to 
abate. The dan was closed off on April 22 and the first trap set 
nade on April 23c Previous to this, close watch had been kept 
on the river for signs of a build-up in spawning walleyes* An eight 
foot trap net was used with a 100 ft c lead attached to one side and 
the set was nade facing downstream in the narrows below the spawning 
area. 

Tagging Method 

To facilitate the operation and nininize handling of the 
walleyes, tagging was conducted on a sand bar adjacent to the trap 
where the water was about 12" in depth* 

A special cable about four feet high had been constructed 
with a trough 36" x 10" set into its top to hold the fish prior to 
tagging o A water col':, ion of the anaesthetic M.S. 222 was placed in 
the trough to a depth of 3-4" into which the walleyes were placed 
two at a tine for a period of 30 - 40 seconds . Upon renoval fron 
the trap net the walleyes were retained in a welded wire holding 
pen prior to anaesthetizing. Common white suckers caught in the 
operation were disposed of. The tag enployed was the yellow 
plastic disc type with Lands and Forests on one side and a serial 
number en the other. It was attached by neans of nylon gut to that 
portion of the dorsum directly between the anterior and posterior 
dorsal fin of each walleye. The fish were then placed in a second 
retaining cage until completely recovered fron the anaesthetic, 
and then released into the river. Data on each fish including the 
tag serial number, fcrk and total length and sex of the fish was 
recorded en a tally sheet c The whole operation was carried out by 
the writer and one assistant* 



Trap Netting Re s 'c 



•> 2 f 



.- I-) 



It seemed that the peak of the run had definitely passed 
when trap-netting was begun since the successive catches on each of 
the six trap -nights decreased rapidly. The firs" set captured 80 
walleyes and the catch showed a decrease each night until only four 
were taken on the sixth night • The initial catch of 80 walleyes 
included only 19 females, most of which were shedding eggs freely. 
It is felt that the swift water in the river could have concealed 
the spawning fish fron the observers with the result that the peak 
of the run was passed when trap netting commenced „ A total of 212 
walleyes were tagged and released and this total was comprised of 
165 males and 47 females, An additional two trap sets made at the 
mouth of the Bonnechere River where it empties into Golden Lake were 
unsuccessful in capturing walleyes returning to the lake. 



40 
Coarse Fish Re moval 

While the walleye program was in progress, all coarse 
fish taken were removed from the river. There appeared to have been 
a significant decrease in the nunber of Conoon White Suckers 
( Catostomus commersoni i) present when the total of 542 taken this 
year is compared with the total of approximately 5,000 taken in 
the same area in an equal number of trap-nights in 1962 „ However, 
it should be noted that the bulk of the 1962 sucker catch was made 
during the first week of May when they were at the peak of spawning 
activity. 

A small number of Lake Whitef ish ( Cor eg onus clupeaformis ) 
ranging in size from 4 to 6 lbs. were taken during the walleye 
operation. These were examined for indications of Triaenophorus 
with negative results,, The stomachs of the whitef ish were also 
examined, and a high percentage were found to contain copious 
quantities of walleye spawn . 

Flooding Problems 

Once again in 1963 the problem of flood waters was 
paramount in curtailing the ualleye spawning study at Tramore. On 
May 4, the stop logs were removed from the dam since the water had 
built up more rapidly than expected, resulting in flood conditions 
on Round Lake. This was the second consecutive year that such 
conditions had existed on this spawning bed. During April of 1962 
when this study was originally attempted operations had to be 
curtailed after tagging only 39 walleyes because of the rapid 
build-up of flood waters . 

1963 Tag Returns 

In order to solicit as many tag returns as possible from 
anglers a notice was made up and stencilled copies were posted in 
Golden Lake village, Egaaville, Killaloe, sevsral restaurants and 
all the tourist establishments around Golden Lake and area. These 
notices depicted the position of the tag on the fish as well as the 
type of tag used The purpose of the project was outlined in point 
form and a request was made for all anglers catching a tagged fish 
to return the tag along with the date of capture and location in the 
lake of the capture „ Radio and T.V e facilities were also utilized 
to advertize the project. 

Of the 212 walleyes tagged 47 have been returned to date 
indicating a quite high 21.2 per cent return. A total of 21 returns 
was made on fish caught in the Bonnechere River between the tagging 
site at Tramore and Deacon area (see Fig, 1). The remaining 26 
returns were from walleyes taken at a number of scattered locations 
in Golden Lake itself. Fig. 1 indicates the locations of tag returns 
from Golden Lake. 



41 

In addition four walleyes tagged in 1962 were taken by 
anglers during the early season in the Bonnechere River and another 
was taken in the trap net in exactly the sane location at which it 
had been tagged in 1962. It is worthy of note that a fifth walleye 
tagged in f 62 was taken on opening day 1963 by an angler at the 
north end of Round Lake above the Tranore dan. It would seen that 
this particular fish passed through the dan in early spring when it 
was open and continued directly across the four nile plus expanse 
of water to the point where the Bonnechere enters Round Lake. 

Tranore Spawning Population Estinate 

In an effort to obtain an estinate of the nunber of 
walleyes using the Tranore spawning bed the sanple of fish checked 
during the initial phase of the Golden Lake creel census was utilized. 
Fron Phase I Golden Lake Creel Census, (see Round Lake-Golden Lake 
Creel Census Report - 1963) 112 walleyes were actually checked and 
18 tag returns were received fron the anglers utilizing the 
Bonnechere River during the nonth of May. By using a correction 
factor of 3/2 the calculated nunber of walleyes taken during nine 
census days in May was 168. 

Further expansion of this to obtain a total nunber of 
walleyes taken during the 21 days of May fron May 11 to 31 yields 
a figure of: 

21 x 163 = 392 walleyes 
9 



Then using the fornula, with x representing the spawning 

n 



population 

18 = 392 
212 x 

Therefore x ■» 4 3 616 adult walleyes. 

This figure should not be considered an absolutely 
accurate estinate but should be of sone significance for conpara- 
tive purposes in the future. 

Biological Data 

The fork and total lengths recorded for the tagged walleyes 
will be of little significance until the scale sanples obtained 
during the creel census have been read. It will then be possible 
to determine weak year classes and attempt to correlate these with 
adverse spawning conditions at Tranore. The tagging operation 
afforded an excellent opportunity to exanine the general physical 
condition of the fish. With the exception of one case of Lynphocystis, 



42 

the walleyes examined appeared to be practically free of disease and 
external parasites and in excellent physical condition. Of the total 
of 212 walleyes tagged, 47 were mature females and 165 were mature 
males, producing a sex ratio of 1:3,5. 

Walleye Distribution in Golden Lake 

It was thought originally that a large proportion of the 
adult walleyes in Golden Lake travelled upstream in the Bonnechere 
River to the Tramore dam area for spawning. However, after closer 
examination of the lake it is felt that only a small proportion of 
the walleyes use this area. The many shoals existing in Golden Lake 
together with the preponderance of small creeks entering the lake 
would certainly indicate an abundance of sites for spawning purposes. 

Fig. 1 illustrates the positions of capture of the 26 
tagged walleyes taken in the lake proper. The distribution appears 
to be quite random with the bulk of returns coming from the Black 
Point area and the vicinity of the deep shoals near the centre of 
the lake. It would appear that the phenomena of the return to the 
original hatching site would be the major factor in dividing a 
generally randomly distributed population into two distinct groups, 
such as river run spawners and lake spawners. 

Degree of Exploitation 

With a return of 47 tags on a total of 212 tagged walleyes, 
the resulting 21,2 per cent return seems quite high for a single 
season. However, it must be considered that 21 of the 47 returns 
were obtained from the Bonnechere River as the walleyes made their 
way back to Golden Lake after spawning. Thus they were concentrated 
in a constricted area which would no doubt result in considerable 
bias when estimation of angling exploitation is concerned. Taking 
this factor into consideration it would then seem that the tag 
return is quite comparable with similar studies conducted in other 
districts of the Province. 

Discussion and Recommendations 

From observations made in the past two years, the number 
of adult walleye using the Tranore spawning bed seems to be 
diminishing. This fact appears to be borne out by the rather low 
estimate of 4,616 spawning fish made through the '63 tagging study. 
Water records during recent years on the Bonnechere River are some- 
what vague and hence not of too much use but it is known that for 
the past two years conditions have been anything but ideal. It is 
our opinion that spring flood conditions in the Bonnechere River 
are a strong contributing cause to what could conceivably be the 
gradual breakdown of the Tramore spawning population of walleyes. 



. r; 






:>(-, 



4 



o 



Careful exanination of the river fron the dan to the Deacon bridge 
on Golden Lake revealed no other spawning areas of significant 
extent save the bed at Tramore. 

This study would also indicate that the Tramore spasming 
population does not contribute to the total walleye population of 
Golden Lake to the extent that was originally considered. However, 
this fact still remains to be proven, and further proof will no 
doubt require 2 to 3 nore years. By this time the effects of the 
past two inadequate spawning seasons may be manifested as an overall 
drop in angling success in Golden Lake. 

In view of the facts now known about Golden Lake walleyes, 
the following recommendations for future management procedures can 
be made. 

1. A study to determine actual egg deposition and survival 
rate on the Tramore dan spawning area is essential. 

2. An effort to improve control of flood waters through the 
manipulation of the Tramore dam should be set up with 
the co-operation of the Renfrew Hydro Commission who 
presently own and operate the dam. Various means of 
accomplishing this objective should be discussed and 
the most feasible method decided and acted upon. 

3. Any further tagging studies, at least in the near 
future should be confined to Golden Lake itself in an 
effort to obtain a total population estimate for the 
lake. 

4. Every effort should be made to gain knowledge on the 
walleye population in Golden Lake in order to form a 
basis for a management plan that will maintain the 
present high standard of angling in this, the most 
important lake fron an econonic standpoint in the 
Penbroke District. 

5. It is also strongly recommended that rigid enforcenent 
procedures be inplemented on the river itself during 
the spawning run in order to curtail poaching activities 
which are in evidence each year. This is a strong 
point in any successful spawning run and should be 
followed through as nuch as possible. 






44 
References 

Houser, Alfred. 1951. Fish Population Estimates in Crystal 
Lake, Cleveland County, Oklahoma. Reprod. from Proceed 
ings of the Oklahoma Acad. Sci. Vol. 39:191-195. 

Ryder, R. A. 1961. Lymphocystis as a Mortality Factor in 
a Walleye Population. Progressive Fish Culturist, Vol. 
23(4):103-186. 

Ryder, R. A. 1960. Comparative Tagging Returns Employing 
Three Different Anaesthetics. Canadian Fish Culturist, 
No. 26: 23-25, March. 




en 



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0) 

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60 
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46 

SOME CURRENT FISHERIES PROBLEMS IN PATRICIA LAKES 
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK OF THE INVENTORY 

PROGRAMME, 1964 

by 
C. A. Lewis 



Abstract 

It is apparent fron this study and others that many 
of the lakes being fished connercially are not 
approaching their quota and only about half of their 
potential is being realized at present. It is suggest- 
ed that the present 4-1/2'nesh (stretched measure) net 
now used on most lakes in the Patricias nay be one 
factor in preventing a nore efficient harvest. The 
writer suggests that efforts be directed towards 
determining what is the best commercial net for use 
in northwestern Ontario. Recommendations for future 
work and status of the project are also presented. 



Introduction 

Before the Patricia Fisheries Inventory programme began 
in 1959 under a joint Federal-Provincial agreement, little was known 
of the commercial fishing potential and factors affecting it in the 
135,000 square mile area of lake country under consideration. 
Since 1959, a great deal of information has been collected on 
conditions affecting lake productivity and on the fish populations 
concerned. Establishment of quotas, methods of quickly determining 
potential fish production of lakes, and growth studies of the 
important commercial species involved, have come out of the study so 
far (10). 

Problems of a more specific nature have also become 
apparent. Some of these questions are raised and a general 
approach to their solution is outlined below. 

Discussion 

Many of the lakes now being fished commercially in the 
Patricias are not approaching their quotas, over a period of time 
(9). Annual commercial fish production from Sioux Lookout District 
from 1959-63 has run from 2.2 million pounds (dressed) in 1961 to 
2.9 nillion pounds in 1959, with an average for the five years of 
2.7 million pounds (15). If these lakes were consistently produc- 
ing to their recorded maximum, approximately 5 million pounds of 
dressed commercial fish, excluding rough fish, could be realized. 



- ■ ' 



■ ■ I' . . 



ri: ' 



47 



This is very close to the total estimated production of 4.S million 
pounds, arrived at by adding the quotas of all these lakes. In 
addition, of an average of six years fishing on these lakes approxi- 
mately 44 per cent have never reached their quota. This information 
would further indicate that the potential of these lakes is only 
partially realized at present. 

Quotas on the harvest of commercial fish are relatively 
meaningless unless they can be consistently realized. Many factors 
affect the annual harvest of corxiercial fish from lakes in the 
Patricias. Among these are: fluctuations in commercial demand, 
cost of air travel, efficiency and reliability of Indian fishermen, 
weather, spoilage, availability of the fish and governmental control 
in the form of quotas and mesh size regulations. 

It is suggested in the following paragraphs that the 
present 4-1/2" mesh (stretched measure) now used on most lakes 
in the Patricias may be one factor in preventing a greater and 
more efficient harvest of walleye ( Stizostedion vitreum ) and 
whitefish ( Cor eg onus clupeaformis ). If our quotas are to be 
judged as realistic or not we oust provide, as far as our juris- 
diction permits the most favorable conditions possible for the 
harvest of these species consistent with the principle of sustained 
yield. 

The topic of optimum mesh sizes for commercial fish 
operations is not a new subject. The need for knowledge of 
minimum size limits for maximum yield is outlined by Ricker (11), 
Herrington (3), and Nesbit (8). Work of this nature was done on 
Lake of the Woods in 1950 and again in 1961 (1,2). In the latter 
report by Greenberg it was recommended that a reduction from 
4-1/2" mesh to 4-1/4" mesh be made for all areas of the Canadian 
portion of the lake. It was also stated in Greenberg 1 s report 
that in Minnesota waters of Lake of the Woods a 4" mesh has been 
used for many years with no apparent harm to the whitefish or walleye 
fishery (7). Kennedy (5), in discussing the optimum size of mesh 
for gill nets in Lake Manitoba recommended 3"-3-3/4" as being most 
advantageous. In northern Manitoba a 4-1/4" mesh is used on predo- 
minantly walleye lakes, in lakes where both walleye and whitefish 
are abundant or in lakes where the whitefish are stunted or highly 
infested. A 5-1/4" mesh is used where whitefish and lake trout 
are the main commercial species. Determination of these mesh sizes 
in northern Manitoba lakes has been arrived at by trial and error, 
are approximately correct and allow at least half the recruits to 
mature and spawn for the first time before being selected by the fish- 
ery (14). Manitoba eventually hopes to zone northern lakes where 
more than one mesh size is allowed, and reduce mesh sizes in some 
areas to more efficiently exploit stunted or early maturing stocks 
of walleye and whitefish (14). 



4 



o 



In the Patricias, we are using a 4-1/2" mesh which was 
primarily designed for use in southern Ontario, where it is probably 
most applicable. We are, in effect, applying a regulation based on 
one ecological area to another area with vastly different conditions. 
For example, Lake Ontario walleye mature at age III (male) and age 
IV (female) and become vulnerable to the 4-1/2" mesh at age IV or 
about 18.0 inches (fork length) and 2.8 pounds (16). Females are 
being taken quite soon after reaching maturity. Earlier maturity 
is possible, apparently when associated with faster growth. It 
is predicted that Lake Erie walleyes from the 1962 year class will 
mature a year sooner (13). This earlier maturity as a result of 
faster growth was also indicated in the whitefish fishery of two 
Alberta lakes 



Present data from Patricia lakes indicate that walleye 
spawn at about age VI or VII. This is in part a result of reduced 
growth rates common in this northern area. Of four Patricia lakes 
mentioned in table 1, all have 94 per cent or better of the walleye 
age VIII or older in the 4" mesh . In North Caribou and the Nikip 
lakes, 89 per cent or better are age VIII or older in the 3-1/2" 
mesh. These data would suggest that we could harvest walleye at an 
earlier age, allowing at least one half to mature and spawn once 
before becoming vulnerable to the fishery. 

Present evidence suggests that only a small spawning 
stock is required to produce a strong year class. This was true in 
Lake Winnipegosis (14), Tathlina Lake (4) and possibly true in the 
strong expected return of the Lake Erie walleye fishery. In Lake 
Erie it is expected that there will be an approximate four-fold 
increase in the landed walleye catch in 1964 over 1961, due to the 
strong 1962 year class (13). There are indications in the literature 
that environmental conditions rather than numbers of mature adults 
determine the success or failure of year class strength. 

In all Patricia lakes in table 1 the average size of 
walleye in the 3-1/2" mesh is more than 16 inches (total length) 
and 1.5 pounds in weight (round). This weight is about the mini- 
mum acceptable size, commercially. 

That the 4-1/2" mesh currently in use is not efficient 
is graphically demonstrated in Figure I, showing catch per unit of 
effort (C.U.E.) figures for walleye from six large lakes over a 
total of nine years. In all cases the maximum C.U.E. is in the 3" 
mesh or less. The efficiency of the 4-1/2" mesh is extremely low. 



-S 



It would appear then, that sone of our future efforts 
should be directed at determining what is the best commercial net 
to be used in this area of northwestern Ontario. The data presented 
here have been directed at walleye, but information should also be 
collected and interpreted for whitefish as well. 

"Critical size" as defined by Ricker (11), is the point 
at which natural mortality outweighs increase in growth and it is 
here that the weight of the fish population is greatest and can 
be most efficiently harvested,, It is this size, applicable to 
Patricia lakes, with due regard for information on age at maturity, 
and fecundity that some of our future management work should be 
directed. 



50 



Table 1 - 


Average Length, Weighl 


: and 


Percentage 


i of Walle; 


ye 




Age 


VTII and Older in 


Different Mesh 


Sizes 














Mesh 


Sizes 










3" 




3-1/2' 


i 4»» 


4-l/2 c ' 


Winisk L. 




% Age VIII or 


54 




64 


95 


83 


1963 




Greater 
















Number 


26 




62 


39 


18 






Average T.L. 


16. 


1 


16.7 


17.9 


17.9 






Average Wt. 


1. 


5 


1.7 


2.1 


2.2 


Attawapiskat 


% Age VIII or 


«, 




a. 


94 


80 * 


L. 




Greater 












1961 




Number 


- 




- 


93 


47 






Average T.L. 


" 




- 


18.0 


16.4 






Average Wt. 


" 




- 


1.9 


1.8 


Deer L. 
















1959 




% Age VIII or 
Greater 


m 




m 


" 


" 






Number 


28 




40.0 


45 


32 






Average T.L. 


14. 


5 


16.6 


18.7 


19.7 






Average Wt. 


1. 


1 


1.6 


2.1 


2.7 


North Caribou 


% Age VIII or 


_ 




97 


95 




L. 




Greater 












1960 




Number 


- 




62 


58 


14 






Average T.L. 


- 




17.3 


18.6 


19.6 






Average Wt. 


- 




1.6 


2.0 


2.6 


Nikip L. 




% Age VIII or 


„ 




89 


98 


81 * 


1963 




Greater 
















Number 


- 




95 


53 


81 






Average T.L. 


_ 




17.3 


17.6 


16.8 






Average Wt. 


- 




1.7 


1.7 


1.6 



* Data from Indian Commercial Fishery. 



51 

Recommendations 

1. A three year study on at least one Patricia lake 
somewhat along the lines outlined by Ricker (12) would give us 
valuable insight into the problem outlined above. This would be 
particularly useful when done in connection with the collection of 
commercial fishery information from existing 4-1/2" mesh fisheries, 
and at least two fisheries using 4" nesh on an experimental basis.* 
This proposed study would annually cost about the same as any one 

of the present lake surveys and should not be done at Big Trout Lake 
as it is not a typical whitef ish- walleye lake in this area, 

2. That funds be provided for a "mobile crew c: who 
would spend a short period of time at selected commercial fisheries 
in the north gathering commercial fish data. If this crew were 
outfitted with a sounder they could also sound any lake on which 

a major lake survey is to be done the following year. This could 
reduce the major lake surveys to one year instead of the present 
two. 

3. That more emphasis be given to recommendations for 
management on specific lakes after a survey has been completed. 
Something along the nature of an individual lake survey report would 
be desirable. Material on the area as a whole is fairly substantial 
now and we can start to be more specific in our approach and re- 
commendations. We are doing this with Wunnummin Lake as a start. 

4. That major lake surveys be continued at the 
rate of at least one per year. 

5. Continuation of measures to improve quality 
should be encouraged. 

6. That the Bug River cabin at Big Trout Lake be 
closed unless research or some other group wish to continue, and 
have funds to do so. It is important that data from the Big Trout 
commercial fishery continue to be collected to follow the effects of 
the 5-1/2" mesh size regulation. About two weeks in August by the 
"mobile crew" would suffice. 

7. That funds continue to be made available for the use 
of two casual employees to work up data in the winter. 

* At least one lake, (Makoop) will use a 4" mesh in 1964. 



52 



Bibliography 



1. Elsey, C. A. 1950. Determination of Optimum Gill Net Sizes in 

Ontario Waters of the Lake of the Woods. Unpublished, 
Kenora District Field Report. 

2. Greenberg, A. 1961. Lake of the Woods Pickerel Survey. Unpublished, 

Kenora District Field Report. 

3. Herrington, William C. 1944. Some Methods of Fishery Management 

and Their Usefulness in a Management Programme. U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report, 
18: 3-22, 54-53 (mineo.). 

4. Kennedy, W. A. 1947. Some Information on the Minimum Adult 

Stock of Fish Needed to Provide Adequate Natural 
Spawning. Can. Fish Cult., Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 14-15. 

5. Kennedy, W. A. 1949, The Determination of Optimum Size of Mesh for 

Gill Nets in Lake Manitoba. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc, 
Vol. 79, pp. 167-179. 

6. Miller, R. B. 1947. The Effects of Different Intensities of 

Fishing on the Whitefish Population of Two Alberta Lakes. 
The Joum. of Wildl. Mgt., Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 239-301. 

7. Minnesota Dept. of Conservation, 1942. An Investigation of Lake 

of the Woods, Minnesota, with Particular Reference to the 
Commercial Fisheries. Minn. Dept. Conservation Bureau of 
Fish Research. Invest. Report No. 42, pp. 1-16 (Mimeo.). 

8 # Nesbit, Robert A, 1944. Biological and Economic Problems of 

Fishery Management. U. 3. Fish & Wildlife Serv., Spec. 
Scientific Report, 10:23-53, 59-66 (Mimeo.). 

9, Ryder, R, A, 1963, Chemical Determinations of Ontario Lakes With 

Special Reference to a Method for Estimating Potential 
Fish Production. Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests, Res. 
Branch, Maple, Ontario, pp. 1-46, to be published soon. 

10, Ryder, R, A t , A. E. Armstrong, and J. J. Armstrong. Preliminary 

Report of the Fisheries Inventory Work in the Patricias, 
1959-60, Dept. of Lands and Forests, Unpublished Report. 

Hi Ricker, William E. 1945. A Method of Estimating Minimum Size 
Limits for Obtaining Maximum Yield. Copeia, No. 2, 
pp. 84-94. 



53 

12. Ricker, Willian E. 1945. Abundance, Exploitation and Mortality of 

the Fishes in Two Lakes. Invest. Ind. Lakes and Streams, 
2(17), Vol. 2, pp. 345-448. 

13. Sports Fishing Institute Bulletin. No. 147, February, 1964. 

14. Sunde, Leif, 1964. Personal Corxjunication. The Pas, Man, 

15. Sioux Lookout District Annual Reports. 1959-1963. Ontario Dept. 

of Lands & Forests, Sioux Lookout, Ontario. 

16. Watson, Mels. 1964. Personal Connunication. Ontario Dept. of Lands 

and Forests, Glenora, Ontario. 




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